The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has publicly released a copy of SECY-18-0055 (dated May 7, 2018), which seeks Commission approval to publish a proposed rule to amend NRC regulations related to the decommissioning of nuclear power reactors. If approved, the NRC Staff will publish the proposed rule in the Federal Register for a 75-day public comment period. The proposed rule, which is accompanied by a draft regulatory analysis and a draft environmental assessment, represents the latest step in a rulemaking process that the NRC staff commenced in December 2014, when the Commission directed the staff to proceed with an integrated rulemaking on power reactor decommissioning in response to the increasing number of power reactors entering decommissioning. Notably, since 2013, six power reactors have permanently shut down, defueled, and entered decommissioning, and 12 additional reactor units are slated to do the same.
The types of potential accidents at decommissioning reactors are substantially fewer, and the risks of radiological releases are substantially lower, relative to those at operating reactors. Certain NRC decommissioning regulations, however, do not specifically account for this important difference between shutdown and operating plants. This fact has prompted decommissioning licensees to request resource intensive regulatory exemptions and related license amendments. Accordingly, the principal purpose of the proposed rule is to increase regulatory efficiency by aligning decommissioning requirements with the reduction in radiological risk that occurs over time (such that fewer plant-specific exemptions and license amendments are necessary) while still adequately protecting public health and safety and maintaining security. The proposed rule seeks to achieve this end by adopting a “graded approach” in several areas that is commensurate with the reductions in radiological risk that occur as a plant progresses through the decommissioning process (i.e., by removing all spent fuel from the reactor vessel, allowing sufficient decay of the fuel in the spent fuel pool, transferring all fuel to dry storage, and removing all fuel from the site).